Aquaculture

India is endowed with rich natural seed resources of shrimps in the sea and vast stretch of coastal land for farming . Universal taste, High Unit value, Short duration of crop, Quick return on Investment, persistent demand and fast expanding world market are the major attraction to take up aquaculture in India.


Aqua Feed Production

Large aqua culture farms have been set up in coastal Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Orissa, West Bengal and other states.

Keeping with the trend, members of CLFMA have set up versatile aqua feed plants and already started manufacturing shrimp and aqua feeds, which are comparable to international standards in terms of quality and efficiency. The plant and machinery manufacturers in India have imbibed the technology to produce suitable palletizers for manufacturing aqua feed pellets having 6 to 8 hours of stability in water. This is a remarkable achievement in a short time span.

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Shrimp Farming

India is considered as one of the world leaders in shrimp production and exports. Among the aqua products, shrimp ( prawn ) has been the dominant item. There are more than 50 varieties of shrimps and six of them are identified for coastal aquaculture.

Types of Shrimp Farming

  1. Traditional
  2. Extensive
  3. Semi-intensive
  4. Intensive
  5. Satellite

Major considerations involved in shrimp feed production are

  1. Quality ingredients,
  2. Nutritionally Balanced and Cost Effective Formula.
  3. Proximate composition.
  4. Feed Conversion Ratio.
  5. Water Stability.

Currently there are about 77,000 h.a. under shrimp culture in India, out of which 50,000 h.a. are under traditional farming requiring no feed. The rest 27,000 h.a. mainly following extensive farming practice need about 50,000 tonnes of feed per annum. The current indigenous feed production is far below the required quantity. The shrimp feed requirement of India is expected to rise to 1,50,000 tonnes by 21st century.

How to start shrimp farming ?
  
The following are the stages involved in taking up successful shrimp aquaculture in India :

  1. Site selection and Micro-Level selection.
  2. Design and Construction of farm.
  3. Pond preparation.
  4. Selective stocking with fast growing shrimp seeds.
  5. Supplementary feeding and Water Quality management.
  6. Harvesting and Marketing.

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Feeds And Feeding

Commercial feeds for Shrimp ( Prawns ) are available in the market and are site specific. A brand which yields good result in one site may not perform well in another site. When, how, where, feeding rate and how much are very important questions to be answered before feeding shrimp. 

Poultry feed accounts for about 40% of output.

Why compounded balanced feed ?

Most livestock will grow on feeding systems consisting of a small range of components , or even a single component, but production levels may be low and if the nutrients levels in the feed are not balanced, wastage of those present in excess will occur. Compound balanced feed is designed to provide the animals daily requirement of all known nutrients, and is intended to obtain maximum levels of production with minimum wastage of nutrients and at minimum feasible cost.

Feed Ingredients :

The principal classes of raw materials are :

  1. Cereals and Cereals by-products.
  2. Roots and Tubers
  3. Leguminous seeds.
  4. Vegetable oil Extraction residues.
  5. Animal By-products and Fats.
  6. Miscellaneous ingredients including Sugar Industry by-products.

Outline of the Feed manufacturing process : 

  1. Selection and layout of Feed milling equipment.
  2. Raw material, Storage, and Selection.
  3. Raw material weighing.
  4. Mixing of Dry ingredients and Addition of liquids.
  5. Pelleting of Mixed food (Optional).
  6. Quality Control and other tests.
  7. Blended feed bagging, Storage and dispatch.

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AQUACULTURE UPSIDE GROWTH POTENTIAL IS MASSIVE
State Potential area ( ha) Potential area ( %) Area developed (ha) Area developed (%)
West Bengal 4,05,000 34.0 50,405 12.5
Orissa 31,600 2.7 12,877 40.8
Andhra Pradesh 1,50,000 12.6 76,687 51.1
Pondicherry 800 0.1 130 16.3
Tamil Nadu 56,000 4.7 5,286 9.4
Kerala 65,000 5.5 14,106 21.7
Karnataka 8,000 0.7 1,910 23.9
Goa 18,500 1.6 310 1.7
Maharashtra 80,000 6.7 1,281 1.6
Gujarat 3,76,000 31.6 2,271 0.6
Total 11,90,900 1,65,263 13.9